A cross-sectional study of frequency, type, and lethality of deliberate self-harm in bipolar affective disorder patients presenting to tertiary care center
Fakirappa Basavaraj Ganiger1, Somashekhar Bijjal2, AT Safeekh3, Manisha Sharma4
1 Associate Professor and Head of Department, Department of Psychiatry, Gadag Institute of Medical Sciences, Amritsar, India
2 Senior Resident, Department of Psychiatry, Gadag Institute of Medical Sciences, Amritsar, India
3 Senior Resident, Department of Psychiatry, Government Medical College, Amritsar, India
4 Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Father Muller Medical College and Hospital, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
Department of Psychiatry, Gadag Institute of Medical Sciences, Gadag - 582 103, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is one of the leading causes of death and a major public health problem worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, DSH has increased by 60% over the past 50 years, of which 90% of victims had a psychiatric disorder.
Aims and Objectives: The aim is to analyze the frequency, type, and lethality of DSH in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) patients.
Materials and Methods: This study included 150 patients diagnosed to have BPAD. Specially designed sociodemographic pro forma was used to record basic profile. DSH inventory was administered on BPAD patients who presented with DSH to analyze the type and lethality. Diagnosis of BPAD was made according to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision. Data were recorded, compiled, and analyzed using frequency and percentage with the IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0.
Results: The frequency of DSH was found to be 33%, out of which 38 (35%) patients had manic episode and 11 (30%) patients had depressive episode. The most common type of DSH was found to be cutting self with sharp or blunt objects and consumption of poison with frequency of 12 (24.5%) each. The second most common DSH was banging head, which was present in (11) 22.4% of patients.
Conclusion: BPAD is associated with increased risk of DSH compared to the general population. The most common type of DSH was cutting self with sharp objects followed by consumption of poison. Patients who presented with DSH in depressive episode and severe mania had more lethal modes of DSH.